High-performance Multi-axis Nanopositioners

Since 2007, we have been developing our own high-performance nanopositioning stages (nanopositioners) for research purposes. We specialize in serial-kinematic designs, and our nanopositioners have ranges up to 60 micrometers and dominant mechanical resonances as high as 150 kHz (unloaded). Photographs of our nanopositioners are shown below, in addition to related literature. If you are interested in obtaining a stage for research work, please contact Dr. Kam K. Leang for more info.

First Generation Design
Our first generation serial-kinematic two-axis nanopositioner design is shown below.  This design incorporates modular simple beam flexures and parts that are assembled using fasteners as shown Fig. 1 below.  As shown, the high-bandwidth x-axis is nested within the low-speed y-axis. The range is 10 um x 10 um, resonances are: x (29 kHz) and y (1.5 kHz).

First generation serial-kinematic two-axis nanopositioner with inertial cancellation.

Figure 1. First generation serial-kinematic two-axis nanopositioner with inertial cancellation. Range: 10 um x 10 um; Resonances: 29 kHz (x) and 1.5 kHz (y).  See reference Leang and Fleming (2009) below for more details about the design.

More details about this design can be found in the following reference:

“High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations”, K. K. Leang and A. J. Fleming Asian Journal of Control, Special issue on Advanced Control Methods for Scanning ProbeMicroscopy, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 144-153, 2009 [Click here to download manuscript in PDF].

 

Second Generation Design
Our second generation design is a monolithic design shown below in Fig. 2.  In particular, the stage body is manufactured from 7075 aluminum using the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process to create a monolithic body. Compliant flexures are used to guide the motion of the sample stage along the x and y axes. Positioning of the sample in the vertical direction is achieved using a piezo-stack actuator embedded into the xpositioning stage. The dominant resonances in the x- and y-axes are measured at 10 and 2.4 kHz, respectively.

Figure 2.

Figure 2.  Generation 2 three-axis serial-kinematic nanopositioner, range is 10 um x 10 um x 3 um and the resonances are: 10 kHz (x), 2.4 kHz (y) and >40 kHz (z).

More details about this design can be found in the following reference:

“Integrated strain and force feedback for high performance control of piezoelectric actuators,” A. J. Fleming and K. K. Leang, Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical, Vol. 161, pp. 256-265, 2010. [ Click here to download PDF ]

 

Third Generation Design (high-speed nanopositioners)
Our third generation design is also monolithic, but the mechanical resonances were optimized for high-speed positioning.  More specifically, the compliant flexures had improved vertical stiffness to minimize out-of-plane motion.  The flexures were also strategically placed to minimize the sample platform’s tendency to rotate at high frequencies.  There are two examples below shown in Fig. 3 and 4, where the design in Fig. 4 was used for high-speed AFM imaging at frame rates that exceeded 70 frames per second.

Figure 3.

Figure 3. Three-axis serial-kinematic nanopositioner, with range of 10 um x 10 um x 2 um, resonance of 12 kHz (z), 5 kHz (y), and >50 kHz (z).

Figure 4.

Figure 4. High-speed serial-kinematic nanopositioner.  Range: 10 um x 10 um x 2 um, resonances: 24 kHz (z), 6 kHz (y), and >70 kHz (z).

More details about this design can be found in the following reference:

“Dual-Stage Repetitive Control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii Hysteresis Inversion for Piezo-Based Nanopositioning”, Y. Shan and K. K. Leang, Mechatronics, Special Issue on Mechatronic Systems for Micro- and Nanoscale Applications, Vol. 22, pp. 271 – 281, 2012. [ Click here to download PDF ]

“Design and control of a three-axis serial-kinematic high-bandwidth nanopositioner”, B. J. Kenton and K. K . Leang, IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 356 – 369, 2012. [ Click here to download PDF ]

 

Long-Range Stages
The following are examples of our long-range, serial kinematic nanopositioners.  These stages are designed such that their first dominant resonant mode is in the actuation direction.  As such, the stage dynamics can be modeled by basic second-order transfer function models.

Long range nanopositioner
Long range three-axis nanopositioner. Range: 40 um x 40 um x 3-10 um; Resonances: 700 Hz (x), 500 Hz (y) and >30 kHz (z).
Long-range three axis nanopositioner

Long range three-axis nanopositioner.  Specifications are the same as the design shown above.

Publications related to nanopositioners, nanopositioning, and piezoactuators:

2017

55.Spatial filter design for dual-stage systemsA. Mitrovic, K. K. Leang, G. M. Clayton (2017): Spatial filter design for dual-stage systems. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Tysons Corner, Virginia, USA, October 11-13, 2107 at the Sheraton Tysons Hotel in Tysons Corner, Virginia, 2017. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
54.Smart Actuator Technologies: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Control for Mechatronic and Robotic Systems (expected 2018)Kam K. Leang, Kwang J. Kim (2017): Smart Actuator Technologies: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Control for Mechatronic and Robotic Systems (expected 2018). Elsevier, 2017. (Type: Book | BibTeX)
53.Design of a Dual-Stage, Three-Axis Hybrid Parallel-Serial-Kinematic Nanopositioner with Mechanically Mitigated Cross-CouplingW. Nagel, K. K. Leang (2017): Design of a Dual-Stage, Three-Axis Hybrid Parallel-Serial-Kinematic Nanopositioner with Mechanically Mitigated Cross-Coupling. Invited session on Design & Control of Micro/Nano Precision Mechatronic Systems, IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Munich, Germany, July 3-7, 2017, 2017. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
52.Spatial-Temporal Trajectory Redesign for Dual-Stage Nanopositioning SystemsD. Guo, A. Mitrovi, G. M. Clayton, K. K. Leang (2017): Spatial-Temporal Trajectory Redesign for Dual-Stage Nanopositioning Systems. Invited session on Design & Control of Micro/Nano Precision Mechatronic Systems, IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Munich, Germany, July 3-7, 2017, 2017. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)

2016

51.High-speed AFM through non-raster scanning and high speed actuationT. T. Ashley, T. Huang, S. B. Andersson, W. Nagel, K. K. Leang (2016): High-speed AFM through non-raster scanning and high speed actuation. Biophysical Society Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, February 27 - March 2. Poster presentation., 2016. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
50.Master-slave control with hysteresis inversion for dual-stage nanopositioning systemsW. S. Nagel, G. M. Clayton, K. K. Leang (2016): Master-slave control with hysteresis inversion for dual-stage nanopositioning systems. American Control Conference (Accepted), Boston MA, July 6-8, 2016, 2016. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
49.Tracking control for nanopositioning systems, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning TechnologiesK. K. Leang, A. J. Fleming (2016): Tracking control for nanopositioning systems, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies. Ru,; Liu,; Sun, (Ed.): Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies, Springer, 2016. (Type: Book Chapter | BibTeX)
48.Position sensors, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning TechnologiesA. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2016): Position sensors, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies. C. Ru X. Liu,; Sun, (Ed.): Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies (Under review), Springer, 2016. (Type: Book Chapter | BibTeX)
47.Design of high-speed nanopositioning systems, Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning TechnologiesY. Yong,, K. K. Leang (2016): Design of high-speed nanopositioning systems, Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies. Ru,; Liu,; Sun, (Ed.): Springer, 2016. (Type: Book Chapter | BibTeX)

2015

46.Low-order damping and tracking control for scanning probe systemsA. J. Fleming, Y. R. Teo, K. K. Leang (2015): Low-order damping and tracking control for scanning probe systems. Mechatronics, Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, 1 , pp. Article 14, 2015. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)
45.Low-order Continuous-time Robust Repetitive Control: Application in Nanopositioning A. A. Eielsen, J. T. Gravdahla, K. K. Leang (2015): Low-order Continuous-time Robust Repetitive Control: Application in Nanopositioning. Mechatronics, 30 , pp. 231–243, 2015. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)

2014

44.Design, modeling, and control of nanopositioning systems A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2014): Design, modeling, and control of nanopositioning systems. Springer, New York, 2014, ISBN: 3319066161. (Type: Book | Links | BibTeX)
43.Range-based control of dual-stage nanopositioning systems G. C. Clayton, C. J. Dudley, K. K. Leang (2014): Range-based control of dual-stage nanopositioning systems. Review of Scientific Instruments, 85 (4), pp. 045003 (6 pages), 2014. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)
42.Analog robust repetitive control for nanopositioning A. A. Eielsen, J. T. Gravdahl, K. K. Leang (2014): Analog robust repetitive control for nanopositioning. 19th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control, 24-29 August 2014, Cape Town, South Africa (Forthcoming), 2014. (Type: Inproceeding | Links | BibTeX)

2013

41.An experimental comparison of PI, inversion, and damping control for high performance nanopositioning A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2013): An experimental comparison of PI, inversion, and damping control for high performance nanopositioning. American Control Conference, 2013. (Type: Inproceeding | Links | BibTeX)
40.Mechanical design and control for high-speed nanopositioning: serial-kinematic nanopositioners and repetitive control for nanofabrication Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2013): Mechanical design and control for high-speed nanopositioning: serial-kinematic nanopositioners and repetitive control for nanofabrication. IEEE Control Systems Magazine (In press), Special Issue on Dynamics and Control of Micro and Naoscale Systems, 33 (6), pp. 86 – 105, 2013. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)

2012

39.Robust damping PI repetitive control for nanopositioning A. A. Eielsen, J. T. Gravdahl, K. K. Leang (2012): Robust damping PI repetitive control for nanopositioning. American Control Conference, 2012. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
38.Accounting for hysteresis in repetitive control design: nanopositioning example Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2012): Accounting for hysteresis in repetitive control design: nanopositioning example. Automatica, 48 (8), pp. 1751 – 1758, 2012. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)
37.An experiment for teaching students about control at the nanoscale K. K. Leang (2012): An experiment for teaching students about control at the nanoscale. IEEE Cont. Syst. Mag., 32 (1), pp. 66–68, 2012. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
36.Design and control of a three-axis serial-kinematic high-bandwidth nanopositioner B. J. Kenton, K. K. Leang (2012): Design and control of a three-axis serial-kinematic high-bandwidth nanopositioner. IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 17 (2), pp. 356 – 369, 2012. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)
35.Dual-stage repetitive control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis inversion for piezo-based nanopositioning Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2012): Dual-stage repetitive control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis inversion for piezo-based nanopositioning. Mechatronics, 22 , pp. 271 – 281, 2012. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)
34.Flexure design using metal matrix composite materials: nanopositioning example B. J. Kenton, K. K. Leang (2012): Flexure design using metal matrix composite materials: nanopositioning example. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
33.Invited Review: High-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control Issues Y. Yong, S. O. R. Moheimani, B. J. Kenton, K. K. Leang (2012): Invited Review: High-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control Issues. Review of Scientific Instruments, 83 (12), pp. 121101, 2012. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)
32.Overcoming the speed limitations of constant-force mode AFM A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2012): Overcoming the speed limitations of constant-force mode AFM. Seeing at the Nanoscale 2012, 2012. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
31.Spatial-temporal control of dual-stage nanpositioners G. M. Clayton, K. K. Leang (2012): Spatial-temporal control of dual-stage nanpositioners. IEEE Control and Decision Conference, 2012. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)

2011

30.Repetitive control for hysteretic systems: theory and application in piezo-based nanopositionersYingfeng Shan (2011): Repetitive control for hysteretic systems: theory and application in piezo-based nanopositioners. Univesity of Nevada, Reno, 2011. (Type: PhD Thesis | Links | BibTeX)
29.A compact ultra-fast vertical nanopositioner for improving SPM scan speed B. J. Kenton, A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2011): A compact ultra-fast vertical nanopositioner for improving SPM scan speed. Rev. Sci. Instr., 82 , pp. 123703, 2011. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
28.Repetitive control design for piezoelectric actuators Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2011): Repetitive control design for piezoelectric actuators. ASME Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS), 2011. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)

2010

27.Application of an Inverse-Hysteresis Iterative Control Algorithm for AFM FabricationSeth C. Ashley (2010): Application of an Inverse-Hysteresis Iterative Control Algorithm for AFM Fabrication. University of Nevada, Reno, 2010. (Type: Masters Thesis | Links | BibTeX)
26.Design, characterization, and control of a high-bandwidth serial-kinematic nanopositioning stage for scanning probe microscopy applicationsBrian J. Kenton (2010): Design, characterization, and control of a high-bandwidth serial-kinematic nanopositioning stage for scanning probe microscopy applications. University of Nevada, Reno, 2010. (Type: Masters Thesis | Links | BibTeX)
25.Bridging the gap between conventional and video-speed scanning probe microscopes A. J. Fleming, B. J. Kenton, K. K. Leang (2010): Bridging the gap between conventional and video-speed scanning probe microscopes. Ultramicroscopy, 110 (9), pp. 1205 – 1214, 2010. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
24. B. J. Kenton, K. K. Leang (2010): Design, characterization, and control of a monolithic three-axis high-bandwidth nanopositioning stage. American Control Conference, Special Invited Session on Advances in Actuation for Nanopositioning and Scanning Probe Systems, pp. 4949 – 4956, 2010. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
23. Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2010): Dual-stage repetitive control for high-speed nanopositioning. IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems and ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Invited session on Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics and Control, 2010. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
22. A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2010): High performance nanopositioning with integrated strain and force feedback. IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems and ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Invited Session on Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics and Control, 2010. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
21.Integrated strain and force feedback for high performance control of piezoelectric actuators A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2010): Integrated strain and force feedback for high performance control of piezoelectric actuators. Sensors and Actuators: A. Physical, 161 (1-2), pp. 256 – 265, 2010. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
20. A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2010): Measurement and control for high-speed sub-atomic positioning in scanning probe microscopes. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA2010), Invited workshop, May 3-8, 2010. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
19. A. J. Fleming, B. J. Kenton, K. K. Leang (2010): Ultra-fast dual-stage vertical positioning for high performance SPMs. American Control Conference, Special Invited Session on Advances in Actuation for Nanopositioning and Scanning Probe Systems, pp. 4975 – 4980, 2010. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)

2009

18. Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2009): Repetitive control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis inverse for piezo-based nanopositioning. American Control Conference, Invited Session on Advances in Control of Nanopositioning and SPM Systems, pp. 301 - 306, 2009. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
17.A review of feedforward control approaches in nanopositioning for high speed SPM G. M. Clayton, S. Tien, K. K. Leang, Q. Zou, S. Devasia (2009): A review of feedforward control approaches in nanopositioning for high speed SPM. ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. and Cont., 131 (6), pp. 061101 (19 pages), 2009. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
16.Design and analysis of discrete-time repetitive control for scanning probe microscopes U. Aridogan, Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2009): Design and analysis of discrete-time repetitive control for scanning probe microscopes. ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. and Cont., 131 , pp. 061103 (12 pages), 2009. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX)
15.Feedforward control of piezoactuators in atomic force microscope systems: inversion-based compensation for dynamics and hysteresis K. K. Leang, Q. Zou, S. Devasia (2009): Feedforward control of piezoactuators in atomic force microscope systems: inversion-based compensation for dynamics and hysteresis. IEEE Cont. Syst. Mag., Special Issue on Hysteresis, 29 (1), pp. 70 – 82, 2009. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
14.High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations K. K. Leang, A. J. Fleming (2009): High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations. Asian Journal of Control, Special issue on Advanced Control Methods for Scanning Probe Microscopy Research and Techniques, 11 (2), pp. 144 – 153, 2009. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)

2008

13.Charge drives for scanning probe microscope positioning stages A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2008): Charge drives for scanning probe microscope positioning stages. Ultramicroscopy, 108 , pp. 1551–1557, 2008. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
12. U. Aridogan, Y. Shan, K. K. Leang (2008): Discrete-time phase compensated repetitive control for piezoactuators in scanning probe microscopes. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Invited Session on Dynamics Modeling and Control of Smart Actuators, pp. 1325 – 1332, 2008. (Type: Inproceeding | Links | BibTeX)
11. A. J. Fleming, K. K. Leang (2008): Evaluation of charge drives for scanning probe microscope positioning stages. American Control Conference, Invited session on Advanced Mechanism Design, Modeling, and Control of SPMs, pp. 2028 – 2033, 2008. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
10. K. K. Leang, A. J. Fleming (2008): High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations. American Control Conference, Invited Session on Modeling and Control of SPM, pp. 3188 – 3193, 2008. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)
9. S. C. Ashley, U. Aridogan, R. O. Riddle, K. K. Leang (2008): Hysteresis inverse iterative learning control of piezoactuators in AFM. 17th IFAC World Congress, Invited Session on Dynamics and Control of Micro- and Nanoscale Systems, 2008. (Type: Inproceeding | Links | BibTeX)
8.Low-cost noncontact infrared sensors for sub-micro-level position measurement and control Y. Shan, J. E. Speich, K. K. Leang (2008): Low-cost noncontact infrared sensors for sub-micro-level position measurement and control. IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, 13 (6), pp. 700 – 709, 2008. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)

2007

7.Feedback-linearized inverse feedforward for creep, hysteresis, and vibration compensation in AFM piezoactuatorsK. K. Leang, S. Devasia (2007): Feedback-linearized inverse feedforward for creep, hysteresis, and vibration compensation in AFM piezoactuators. IEEE Trans. Cont. Syst. Tech., 15 (5), pp. 927 – 935, 2007. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX)

2006

6.Design of hysteresis-compensating iterative learning control for piezo positioners: application to atomic force microscopes K. K. Leang, S. Devasia (2006): Design of hysteresis-compensating iterative learning control for piezo positioners: application to atomic force microscopes. Mechatronics, 16 (3--4), pp. 141 – 158, 2006. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)

2004

5.Control issues in high-speed AFM for biological applications: collagen imaging example Q. Zou, K. K. Leang, E. Sadoun, M. J. Reed, S. Devasia (2004): Control issues in high-speed AFM for biological applications: collagen imaging example. Asian Journal of Control, Special issue on Advances in Nanotechnology Control, 6 (2), pp. 164-178, 2004. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX)
4.Iterative learning control of hysteresis in piezo-based nanopositioners: theory and application in atomic force microscopesK. K. Leang (2004): Iterative learning control of hysteresis in piezo-based nanopositioners: theory and application in atomic force microscopes. University of Washington, 2004. (Type: PhD Thesis | Links | BibTeX)
3.Iterative learning control of piezo positioners for long-range SPM-based nanofabrication K. K. Leang, S. Devasia (2004): Iterative learning control of piezo positioners for long-range SPM-based nanofabrication. The 3rd IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, 2004. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)

2003

2.Iterative feedforward compensation of hysteresis in piezo positioners K. K. Leang, S. Devasia (2003): Iterative feedforward compensation of hysteresis in piezo positioners. IEEE 42nd Conference on Decision and Controls, Invited session on Nanotechnology: Control Needs and Related Perspectives, pp. 2626 - 2631, 2003. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)

2002

1.Hysteresis, creep, and vibration compensation for piezoactuators: feedback and feedforward control K. K. Leang, S. Devasia (2002): Hysteresis, creep, and vibration compensation for piezoactuators: feedback and feedforward control. The 2nd IFAC Conference on Mechatronic Systems, Invited session on Smart Materials and Structures, pp. 283-289, 2002. (Type: Inproceeding | BibTeX)