High-performance Multi-axis Nanopositioners

Since 2007, we have been developing our own high-performance nanopositioning stages (nanopositioners) for research purposes. We specialize in serial-kinematic designs, and our nanopositioners have ranges up to 60 micrometers and dominant mechanical resonances as high as 150 kHz (unloaded). Photographs of our nanopositioners are shown below, in addition to related literature. If you are interested in obtaining a stage for research work, please contact Dr. Kam K. Leang for more info.

First Generation Design
Our first generation serial-kinematic two-axis nanopositioner design is shown below.  This design incorporates modular simple beam flexures and parts that are assembled using fasteners as shown Fig. 1 below.  As shown, the high-bandwidth x-axis is nested within the low-speed y-axis. The range is 10 um x 10 um, resonances are: x (29 kHz) and y (1.5 kHz).

First generation serial-kinematic two-axis nanopositioner with inertial cancellation.

Figure 1. First generation serial-kinematic two-axis nanopositioner with inertial cancellation. Range: 10 um x 10 um; Resonances: 29 kHz (x) and 1.5 kHz (y).  See reference Leang and Fleming (2009) below for more details about the design.

More details about this design can be found in the following reference:

“High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations”, K. K. Leang and A. J. Fleming Asian Journal of Control, Special issue on Advanced Control Methods for Scanning ProbeMicroscopy, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 144-153, 2009 [Click here to download manuscript in PDF].

 

Second Generation Design
Our second generation design is a monolithic design shown below in Fig. 2.  In particular, the stage body is manufactured from 7075 aluminum using the wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process to create a monolithic body. Compliant flexures are used to guide the motion of the sample stage along the x and y axes. Positioning of the sample in the vertical direction is achieved using a piezo-stack actuator embedded into the xpositioning stage. The dominant resonances in the x- and y-axes are measured at 10 and 2.4 kHz, respectively.

Figure 2.

Figure 2.  Generation 2 three-axis serial-kinematic nanopositioner, range is 10 um x 10 um x 3 um and the resonances are: 10 kHz (x), 2.4 kHz (y) and >40 kHz (z).

More details about this design can be found in the following reference:

“Integrated strain and force feedback for high performance control of piezoelectric actuators,” A. J. Fleming and K. K. Leang, Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical, Vol. 161, pp. 256-265, 2010. [ Click here to download PDF ]

 

Third Generation Design (high-speed nanopositioners)
Our third generation design is also monolithic, but the mechanical resonances were optimized for high-speed positioning.  More specifically, the compliant flexures had improved vertical stiffness to minimize out-of-plane motion.  The flexures were also strategically placed to minimize the sample platform’s tendency to rotate at high frequencies.  There are two examples below shown in Fig. 3 and 4, where the design in Fig. 4 was used for high-speed AFM imaging at frame rates that exceeded 70 frames per second.

Figure 3.

Figure 3. Three-axis serial-kinematic nanopositioner, with range of 10 um x 10 um x 2 um, resonance of 12 kHz (z), 5 kHz (y), and >50 kHz (z).

Figure 4.

Figure 4. High-speed serial-kinematic nanopositioner.  Range: 10 um x 10 um x 2 um, resonances: 24 kHz (z), 6 kHz (y), and >70 kHz (z).

More details about this design can be found in the following reference:

“Dual-Stage Repetitive Control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii Hysteresis Inversion for Piezo-Based Nanopositioning”, Y. Shan and K. K. Leang, Mechatronics, Special Issue on Mechatronic Systems for Micro- and Nanoscale Applications, Vol. 22, pp. 271 – 281, 2012. [ Click here to download PDF ]

“Design and control of a three-axis serial-kinematic high-bandwidth nanopositioner”, B. J. Kenton and K. K . Leang, IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 356 – 369, 2012. [ Click here to download PDF ]

 

Long-Range Stages
The following are examples of our long-range, serial kinematic nanopositioners.  These stages are designed such that their first dominant resonant mode is in the actuation direction.  As such, the stage dynamics can be modeled by basic second-order transfer function models.

Long range nanopositioner
Long range three-axis nanopositioner. Range: 40 um x 40 um x 3-10 um; Resonances: 700 Hz (x), 500 Hz (y) and >30 kHz (z).
Long-range three axis nanopositioner

Long range three-axis nanopositioner.  Specifications are the same as the design shown above.

Publications related to nanopositioners, nanopositioning, and piezoactuators:

2017

55.Spatial filter design for dual-stage systems

A. Mitrovic, K. K. Leang; G. M. Clayton

Spatial filter design for dual-stage systems Inproceedings

ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Tysons Corner, Virginia, USA, October 11-13, 2107 at the Sheraton Tysons Hotel in Tysons Corner, Virginia, 2017.

BibTeX

54.Smart Actuator Technologies: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Control for Mechatronic and Robotic Systems (expected 2018)

Kam K. Leang; Kwang J. Kim

Smart Actuator Technologies: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Control for Mechatronic and Robotic Systems (expected 2018) Book

Elsevier, 2017.

BibTeX

53.Design of a Dual-Stage, Three-Axis Hybrid Parallel-Serial-Kinematic Nanopositioner with Mechanically Mitigated Cross-Coupling

W. Nagel; K. K. Leang

Design of a Dual-Stage, Three-Axis Hybrid Parallel-Serial-Kinematic Nanopositioner with Mechanically Mitigated Cross-Coupling Inproceedings

Invited session on Design & Control of Micro/Nano Precision Mechatronic Systems, IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Munich, Germany, July 3-7, 2017, 2017.

BibTeX

52.Spatial-Temporal Trajectory Redesign for Dual-Stage Nanopositioning Systems

D. Guo, A. Mitrovi, G. M. Clayton; K. K. Leang

Spatial-Temporal Trajectory Redesign for Dual-Stage Nanopositioning Systems Inproceedings

Invited session on Design & Control of Micro/Nano Precision Mechatronic Systems, IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Munich, Germany, July 3-7, 2017, 2017.

BibTeX

2016

51.High-speed AFM through non-raster scanning and high speed actuation

T. T. Ashley, T. Huang, S. B. Andersson, W. Nagel; K. K. Leang

High-speed AFM through non-raster scanning and high speed actuation Inproceedings

Biophysical Society Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, February 27 - March 2. Poster presentation., 2016.

BibTeX

50.Master-slave control with hysteresis inversion for dual-stage nanopositioning systems

W. S. Nagel, G. M. Clayton; K. K. Leang

Master-slave control with hysteresis inversion for dual-stage nanopositioning systems Inproceedings

American Control Conference (Accepted), Boston MA, July 6-8, 2016, 2016.

BibTeX

49.Tracking control for nanopositioning systems, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies

K. K. Leang; A. J. Fleming

Tracking control for nanopositioning systems, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies Book Chapter

Ru, C; Liu, X; Sun, Y (Ed.): Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies, Springer, 2016.

BibTeX

48.Position sensors, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

Position sensors, in Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies Book Chapter

C. Ru X. Liu, ; Sun, Y (Ed.): Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies (Under review), Springer, 2016.

BibTeX

47.Design of high-speed nanopositioning systems, Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies

Y. Yong,; K. K. Leang

Design of high-speed nanopositioning systems, Fundamentals and Applications of Nanopositioning Technologies Book Chapter

Ru, C; Liu, X; Sun, Y (Ed.): Springer, 2016.

BibTeX

2015

46.Low-order damping and tracking control for scanning probe systems

A. J. Fleming, Y. R. Teo; K. K. Leang

Low-order damping and tracking control for scanning probe systems Journal Article

Mechatronics, Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, 1 , pp. Article 14, 2015.

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45.Low-order Continuous-time Robust Repetitive Control: Application in Nanopositioning

A. A. Eielsen; J. T. Gravdahla; K. K. Leang

Low-order Continuous-time Robust Repetitive Control: Application in Nanopositioning Journal Article

Mechatronics, 30 , pp. 231–243, 2015.

BibTeX

2014

44.Design, modeling, and control of nanopositioning systems

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

Design, modeling, and control of nanopositioning systems Book

Springer, New York, 2014, ISBN: 3319066161.

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43.Range-based control of dual-stage nanopositioning systems

G. C. Clayton; C. J. Dudley; K. K. Leang

Range-based control of dual-stage nanopositioning systems Journal Article

Review of Scientific Instruments, 85 (4), pp. 045003 (6 pages), 2014.

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42.Analog robust repetitive control for nanopositioning

A. A. Eielsen; J. T. Gravdahl; K. K. Leang

Analog robust repetitive control for nanopositioning Inproceedings

19th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control, 24-29 August 2014, Cape Town, South Africa (Forthcoming), 2014.

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2013

41.An experimental comparison of PI, inversion, and damping control for high performance nanopositioning

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

An experimental comparison of PI, inversion, and damping control for high performance nanopositioning Inproceedings

American Control Conference, 2013.

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40.Mechanical design and control for high-speed nanopositioning: serial-kinematic nanopositioners and repetitive control for nanofabrication

Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Mechanical design and control for high-speed nanopositioning: serial-kinematic nanopositioners and repetitive control for nanofabrication Journal Article

IEEE Control Systems Magazine (In press), Special Issue on Dynamics and Control of Micro and Naoscale Systems, 33 (6), pp. 86 – 105, 2013.

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2012

39.Robust damping PI repetitive control for nanopositioning

A. A. Eielsen; J. T. Gravdahl; K. K. Leang

Robust damping PI repetitive control for nanopositioning Inproceedings

American Control Conference, 2012.

BibTeX

38.Accounting for hysteresis in repetitive control design: nanopositioning example

Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Accounting for hysteresis in repetitive control design: nanopositioning example Journal Article

Automatica, 48 (8), pp. 1751 – 1758, 2012.

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37.An experiment for teaching students about control at the nanoscale

K. K. Leang

An experiment for teaching students about control at the nanoscale Journal Article

IEEE Cont. Syst. Mag., 32 (1), pp. 66–68, 2012.

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36.Design and control of a three-axis serial-kinematic high-bandwidth nanopositioner

B. J. Kenton; K. K. Leang

Design and control of a three-axis serial-kinematic high-bandwidth nanopositioner Journal Article

IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 17 (2), pp. 356 – 369, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

35.Dual-stage repetitive control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis inversion for piezo-based nanopositioning

Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Dual-stage repetitive control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis inversion for piezo-based nanopositioning Journal Article

Mechatronics, 22 , pp. 271 – 281, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

34.Flexure design using metal matrix composite materials: nanopositioning example

B. J. Kenton; K. K. Leang

Flexure design using metal matrix composite materials: nanopositioning example Inproceedings

IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012.

BibTeX

33.Invited Review: High-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control Issues

Y. Yong; S. O. R. Moheimani; B. J. Kenton; K. K. Leang

Invited Review: High-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control Issues Journal Article

Review of Scientific Instruments, 83 (12), pp. 121101, 2012.

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32.Overcoming the speed limitations of constant-force mode AFM

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

Overcoming the speed limitations of constant-force mode AFM Inproceedings

Seeing at the Nanoscale 2012, 2012.

BibTeX

31.Spatial-temporal control of dual-stage nanpositioners

G. M. Clayton; K. K. Leang

Spatial-temporal control of dual-stage nanpositioners Inproceedings

IEEE Control and Decision Conference, 2012.

BibTeX

2011

30.Repetitive control for hysteretic systems: theory and application in piezo-based nanopositioners

Yingfeng Shan

Repetitive control for hysteretic systems: theory and application in piezo-based nanopositioners PhD Thesis

Univesity of Nevada, Reno, 2011.

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29.A compact ultra-fast vertical nanopositioner for improving SPM scan speed

B. J. Kenton; A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

A compact ultra-fast vertical nanopositioner for improving SPM scan speed Journal Article

Rev. Sci. Instr., 82 , pp. 123703, 2011.

BibTeX

28.Repetitive control design for piezoelectric actuators

Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Repetitive control design for piezoelectric actuators Inproceedings

ASME Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS), 2011.

BibTeX

2010

27.Application of an Inverse-Hysteresis Iterative Control Algorithm for AFM Fabrication

Seth C. Ashley

Application of an Inverse-Hysteresis Iterative Control Algorithm for AFM Fabrication Masters Thesis

University of Nevada, Reno, 2010.

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26.Design, characterization, and control of a high-bandwidth serial-kinematic nanopositioning stage for scanning probe microscopy applications

Brian J. Kenton

Design, characterization, and control of a high-bandwidth serial-kinematic nanopositioning stage for scanning probe microscopy applications Masters Thesis

University of Nevada, Reno, 2010.

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25.Bridging the gap between conventional and video-speed scanning probe microscopes

A. J. Fleming; B. J. Kenton; K. K. Leang

Bridging the gap between conventional and video-speed scanning probe microscopes Journal Article

Ultramicroscopy, 110 (9), pp. 1205 – 1214, 2010.

BibTeX

24.

B. J. Kenton; K. K. Leang

Design, characterization, and control of a monolithic three-axis high-bandwidth nanopositioning stage Inproceedings

American Control Conference, Special Invited Session on Advances in Actuation for Nanopositioning and Scanning Probe Systems, pp. 4949 – 4956, 2010.

BibTeX

23.

Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Dual-stage repetitive control for high-speed nanopositioning Inproceedings

IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems and ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Invited session on Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics and Control, 2010.

BibTeX

22.

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

High performance nanopositioning with integrated strain and force feedback Inproceedings

IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems and ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Invited Session on Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics and Control, 2010.

BibTeX

21.Integrated strain and force feedback for high performance control of piezoelectric actuators

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

Integrated strain and force feedback for high performance control of piezoelectric actuators Journal Article

Sensors and Actuators: A. Physical, 161 (1-2), pp. 256 – 265, 2010.

BibTeX

20.

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

Measurement and control for high-speed sub-atomic positioning in scanning probe microscopes Inproceedings

IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA2010), Invited workshop, May 3-8, 2010.

BibTeX

19.

A. J. Fleming; B. J. Kenton; K. K. Leang

Ultra-fast dual-stage vertical positioning for high performance SPMs Inproceedings

American Control Conference, Special Invited Session on Advances in Actuation for Nanopositioning and Scanning Probe Systems, pp. 4975 – 4980, 2010.

BibTeX

2009

18.

Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Repetitive control with Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis inverse for piezo-based nanopositioning Inproceedings

American Control Conference, Invited Session on Advances in Control of Nanopositioning and SPM Systems, pp. 301 - 306, 2009.

BibTeX

17.A review of feedforward control approaches in nanopositioning for high speed SPM

G. M. Clayton; S. Tien; K. K. Leang; Q. Zou; S. Devasia

A review of feedforward control approaches in nanopositioning for high speed SPM Journal Article

ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. and Cont., 131 (6), pp. 061101 (19 pages), 2009.

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16.Design and analysis of discrete-time repetitive control for scanning probe microscopes

U. Aridogan; Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Design and analysis of discrete-time repetitive control for scanning probe microscopes Journal Article

ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. and Cont., 131 , pp. 061103 (12 pages), 2009.

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15.Feedforward control of piezoactuators in atomic force microscope systems: inversion-based compensation for dynamics and hysteresis

K. K. Leang; Q. Zou; S. Devasia

Feedforward control of piezoactuators in atomic force microscope systems: inversion-based compensation for dynamics and hysteresis Journal Article

IEEE Cont. Syst. Mag., Special Issue on Hysteresis, 29 (1), pp. 70 – 82, 2009.

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14.High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations

K. K. Leang; A. J. Fleming

High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations Journal Article

Asian Journal of Control, Special issue on Advanced Control Methods for Scanning Probe Microscopy Research and Techniques, 11 (2), pp. 144 – 153, 2009.

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2008

13.Charge drives for scanning probe microscope positioning stages

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

Charge drives for scanning probe microscope positioning stages Journal Article

Ultramicroscopy, 108 , pp. 1551–1557, 2008.

BibTeX

12.

U. Aridogan; Y. Shan; K. K. Leang

Discrete-time phase compensated repetitive control for piezoactuators in scanning probe microscopes Inproceedings

ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Invited Session on Dynamics Modeling and Control of Smart Actuators, pp. 1325 – 1332, 2008.

Links | BibTeX

11.

A. J. Fleming; K. K. Leang

Evaluation of charge drives for scanning probe microscope positioning stages Inproceedings

American Control Conference, Invited session on Advanced Mechanism Design, Modeling, and Control of SPMs, pp. 2028 – 2033, 2008.

BibTeX

10.

K. K. Leang; A. J. Fleming

High-speed serial-kinematic AFM scanner: design and drive considerations Inproceedings

American Control Conference, Invited Session on Modeling and Control of SPM, pp. 3188 – 3193, 2008.

BibTeX

9.

S. C. Ashley; U. Aridogan; R. O. Riddle; K. K. Leang

Hysteresis inverse iterative learning control of piezoactuators in AFM Inproceedings

17th IFAC World Congress, Invited Session on Dynamics and Control of Micro- and Nanoscale Systems, 2008.

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8.Low-cost noncontact infrared sensors for sub-micro-level position measurement and control

Y. Shan; J. E. Speich; K. K. Leang

Low-cost noncontact infrared sensors for sub-micro-level position measurement and control Journal Article

IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, 13 (6), pp. 700 – 709, 2008.

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2007

7.Feedback-linearized inverse feedforward for creep, hysteresis, and vibration compensation in AFM piezoactuators

K. K. Leang; S. Devasia

Feedback-linearized inverse feedforward for creep, hysteresis, and vibration compensation in AFM piezoactuators Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Cont. Syst. Tech., 15 (5), pp. 927 – 935, 2007.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

2006

6.Design of hysteresis-compensating iterative learning control for piezo positioners: application to atomic force microscopes

K. K. Leang; S. Devasia

Design of hysteresis-compensating iterative learning control for piezo positioners: application to atomic force microscopes Journal Article

Mechatronics, 16 (3--4), pp. 141 – 158, 2006.

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2004

5.Control issues in high-speed AFM for biological applications: collagen imaging example

Q. Zou; K. K. Leang; E. Sadoun; M. J. Reed; S. Devasia

Control issues in high-speed AFM for biological applications: collagen imaging example Journal Article

Asian Journal of Control, Special issue on Advances in Nanotechnology Control, 6 (2), pp. 164-178, 2004.

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4.Iterative learning control of hysteresis in piezo-based nanopositioners: theory and application in atomic force microscopes

K. K. Leang

Iterative learning control of hysteresis in piezo-based nanopositioners: theory and application in atomic force microscopes PhD Thesis

University of Washington, 2004.

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3.Iterative learning control of piezo positioners for long-range SPM-based nanofabrication

K. K. Leang; S. Devasia

Iterative learning control of piezo positioners for long-range SPM-based nanofabrication Inproceedings

The 3rd IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, 2004.

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2003

2.Iterative feedforward compensation of hysteresis in piezo positioners

K. K. Leang; S. Devasia

Iterative feedforward compensation of hysteresis in piezo positioners Inproceedings

IEEE 42nd Conference on Decision and Controls, Invited session on Nanotechnology: Control Needs and Related Perspectives, pp. 2626 - 2631, 2003.

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2002

1.Hysteresis, creep, and vibration compensation for piezoactuators: feedback and feedforward control

K. K. Leang; S. Devasia

Hysteresis, creep, and vibration compensation for piezoactuators: feedback and feedforward control Inproceedings

The 2nd IFAC Conference on Mechatronic Systems, Invited session on Smart Materials and Structures, pp. 283-289, 2002.

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